Academic failure has been identified as a major cause of adolescent aggression and violence (Vaughn et al., 2014). Oral reading, weak word decoding skills, and low comprehension in reading have been labeled as strong predictors of violent and destructive behavior, hyperactivity, and anti-social actions (Toppelberg et al., 2006). Preventing academic failure is one of the principal tools used for reducing violent and aggressive behavior (Coll & Marks, 2012). If reading failure can be reversed before it becomes a major source of stress, students will have a better opportunity to succeed. Prevention programs that reduce reading failure, especially early elementary programs, help to reduce the risk of academic failure, violence, and mental health disorders (Curby et al., 2011).
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Elaine Clanton Harpine, Ph.D.
Elaine is a program designer with many years of experience helping at-risk children learn to read. She earned a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology (Counseling) from the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.